1. “It was only natural, as the architects and original advocates of terror were themselves destroyed by it, or reduced to silence or impotence, that people should begin to wonder what the terror was for, and where the Revolution was going” (p.272).
Where did the Revolution go during the period covered in chapter 12?
2. “As a movement, counter-revolution began as soon as there was a revolution to counter. Once launched, of course, it sought and found justification from a wide range of conservative ideas current before 1789; but it took the creation of a new regime, itself appealing to new justifications, to focus these strains into a counter-revolutionary outlook.” (p. 297)
Who were the counter-revolutionaries of 1795, what were they revolting against, and what was their justification?
3. The problem facing the Convention in the summer of 1795 was now very clear. It had to devise a constitution for the country which would prevent the recovery of the forces of both terrorism and royalism. All the deputies agreed that what France needed most was stability. But they also believed that stability could and should be achieved without sacrificing the principles of 1789, [however] the principles of 1789 were not to be confused with those of 1793 (paraphrase of chapter introduction, p. 318). Explain how the Convention addressed the problem.
4. “The year VII, therefore, beginning in September 1798, was marked by popular uprisings against the French and their Revolution in most of the areas where they had penetratedâ€”Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, and Italy. . . By the late 1790s, the fact is that whereas the friends of revolutionary France beyond her borders still ran into thousands, their numbers were rapidly diminishing. Her enemies, on the other hand, ran into the millions, and were increasing all the time” (p. 367 – 8). What evidence does Doyle provide to support this conclusion?