Case Study Assignment Instructions
For this assignment your task is to read a case and analyze what is happening from the perspective of some of the theories discussed in Chapter 2. Note that for some of the theories you will have to refer to information from the chapter, for others you will have to refer to information from the slides and/or Theoretical Foundations Presentation.
Step 1 Read the case and think about where to apply the different theories from chapter 2.
See Case Study Assignment Instructions for Step 1 instructions.
Step 2 Post the application of your theory in your group’s discussion area.
It’s time to analyze the case! To encourage participation Iâ€™ve divided the class into groups for this activity. Within your group each of you will be responsible for one theory. Your grade will be based mainly on this primary post.
You will find your theory assignment posted in your discussion area below (I’ve titled it “Theory Assignments”).
YOUR PRIMARY POST
When you post your analysis make sure you:
- Post your analysis based only on the theory you are assigned.
- Post by clicking on the main reply button below (don’t my post or another classmates posts for your primary post).
- Provide a title for your post – Use your theory as a title in the first line of your post. For example:
- TITLE: Behaviorism (Classical Conditioning)
- Use all the terms/concepts for your theory from the list. You should apply these to specific details from the case. Discussing the concepts generally is insufficient and may cause you to lose points.
- DO NOT use terms/concepts that are not on this list.
- Do not go over the word limit. Your posts should not be overly long (300–500 words maximum).
Your task here is to show me you know the theory by applying it correctly to the case. The earlier you get started on this assignment the more opportunities there will be for other members of your group (and me if time permits) to give you feedback and help you as you go along. If you wait until the last day it very unlikely you will get this kind of benefit. So start early and check in often! 😉
RESPONDING TO OTHER STUDENTS
Each person is primarily responsible for the theory next to their name. After you post about your own theory, you can help each other out, however: DO NOT comment on the theories you were not assigned until the person responsible for it has had a chance to post.
Once another student has responded to their theory please DO respond to their contribution IF you think you can help them improve it (you can agree, disagree, extend, give hints, etc.). However, when you give comments to another student please think carefully about how you do this. Make sure you:
- Know the theory well enough. If you give them feedback, you want to avoid leading your fellow student in the wrong direction!
- Don’t just answer the question for them. I can’t stress this strongly enough! The idea here is to help your fellow group member improve their answer NOT to answer the question for them. So try to give them a hint that will lead them in the right direction. Don’t simply answer the question for them.
Note! I have created different discussion areas for each group. Only your own group members have access to this discussion area. So you do not need to use email to contact other group members.
I will be using the following rubric as a guideline for grading:
|No attempt made.
|Some attempt made but very inadequately done. Analysis is very brief and/or almost nothing is correct.
|Analysis had some valid and correct connections but the majority of it was incorrect or missing.
|The majority of the analysis had valid and correct connections something important was missing or incorrect.
|The whole analysis was well done, valid, correct, and complete. Only minor incorrect or missing information.
Note: When grading consideration will also be given for providing useful comments to other group members to help them improve their analyses.
Filter replies by unread
Name – Theory you are responsible for REBECCA – Freud RACHAEL – Vygotsky DANICA – Behaviorism (Classical Conditioning) MIA (CARTER) – Behaviorism (Operant Conditioning) GINA – Social Learning Theory JORDAN – Piaget
Remember: Each person is primarily responsible for the theory next to their name. After you post about your own theory, you can help each other out, however:
DO NOT comment on the theories you were not assigned until the person responsible for it has had a chance to post.Once another student has responded to their theory please DO respond to their contribution
IF you think you can help them improve it (you can agree, disagree, extend, give hints, etc.).
However, when you give comments to another student please think carefully about how you do this. Make sure you:
- Know the theory well enough. If you give them feedback, you want to avoid leading your fellow student in the wrong direction!
- Don’t just answer the question for them. I can’t stress this strongly enough! The idea here it to help your fellow group member improve their answer NOT to answer the question for them. So try to give them a hint that will lead them in the right direction. Don’t simply answer the question for them.
Stephen Druker on Feb 20 at 5:12pm
TITLE: Social Learning Theory From the perspective of Banduraâ€™s Social Learning Theory, the child in the final paragraph clearly exemplifies the way in which we can learn from one another through observational learning, imitation, and modeling. Although at the beginning of the story it is not initially clear to us why the child is crying in front of their TV, the last paragraph makes it abundantly obvious that the child began crying simply with the hopes of getting what he wanted â€“ more cookies. The child did this because, through his TV, he observed a boy who successfully did just that. This process of social learning began when the child initially started
observing a model, who in this case, was the other boy he saw on TV. Although the models who are often chosen as examples for observation are typically parents, peers, and siblings, they absolutely can also be celebrities or simply other people seen on TV, as was true in this example. The child next engaged in the act of
imitation, by emulating the same kind of behavior â€“ crying â€“ that he had seen the boy on the screen partake in. Itâ€™s important to note that no direct reinforcement was involved in this situation at all. Neither parent made any indication to their child (who is the obvious learner in this setting) that by crying more, there was a potential for more rewards, or in this case, cookies. In fact, it was actually the model, the boy on TV, whose behavior was reinforced, as his intensifying cries made his mother give him a â€œwhole box of cookiesâ€. This kind of reinforcement is called
vicarious reinforcement, due to the fact that learning in a social context was emphasized instead of learning through direct reinforcement. The child simply repeated the behavior that he had seen another boy being rewarded for. This is why new behaviors, such as crying louder with the hopes of having a parent notice and thereby give them
more cookies in this instance, absolutely have the potential to be attributed to social learning without direct reinforcement ever being involved.
From watching the slides I got a good understanding on Behaviorism (Operant Conditioning).It is basically the process that attempts to change the behavior through the use of positive and negative reinforcement. The method that is used is the learning that occurs through rewards and punishments based on the behavior of the person. A example is basically a person comes up to you and say if you take this 5 minute survey I will give you 50$ most people will do it because of the money and that is the positive reinforcement of the situation. Now let’s say the person says can you take this five minute survey and if not you will go to jail that is the negative situation. Operant conditioning plays an important role in everyone’s everyday lives, reinforcement and punishment happens everyday in our lives, it’s basically like your learning morals and how you should go about things. Now to the story, most of the characters had positive and negative behaviors starting off with little baby he is crying infront of the TV loudly after his dad sends him to watch TV at first reading the story we don’t understand why the baby is crying. After reading the story we get a understanding on why the baby was crying in front of the TV and his reasoning was that his dad would only allow him to get one cookie before dinner and he sees that on TV that the kid was allowed to eat the whole box of cookies. Now that ties into behavioral operant conditioning referring to the kid mostly, the kid is basically giving an ultimatum that if he can get more than one cookie he would stop crying and if he can not get another cookie he would continue to cry. He is using the positive and negative behavior. For example; if your crying and someone says if you stop crying I’ll buy you a gift your going to stop crying, but let’s say the person doesnâ€™t offer anything to get you to stop crying your not going to stop crying until you want to stop crying. So basic overall you are learning from right to wrong, if you ever experience the punishment that is going to shape your idea and not want you to really evert have to go through the negative punishment so you would mostly try to stay within the positive reinforcement. Clearly from the story the kid is experiencing the negative punishment because if he wasn’t his dad would allow him to get another cookie before dinner.
Mia,I can see how you are trying to apply the theory. Unfortunately, there is almost nothing in your analysis that can be considered correct here. I suggest you review the concepts in the text, overheads, and chapter FAQs and especially the Theoretical Foundations Presentation then revise your analysis. Here are some tips to help you:
- The instructions ask you to apply specific concepts from the theory you are assigned (positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and extinction). Extinction is never even mentioned in your analysis.
- Much of your post is referring to general descriptions of the theory or using examples that are not based on any details of the case. This includes the first six sentences of your post as well as things that come later (e.g., when you talk about the example of someone telling someone else to stop crying). None of this is needed and all of it should be deleted. Stick to applying the terms from the theory provided in the instructions to the specific details of the case. Remove general descriptions and extra details. They are not needed, may cause you to go over the word limit and, if not used correctly (as you are doing here) will result in lost points. You should delete these parts of your analysis.
- It is clear from these and other parts of your analysis that you still have some basic misunderstandings about operant conditioning. You seem to be confusing positive and negative behaviors, which have nothing to do with the theory, with positive and negative reinforcement. Avoid using terms like positive and negative behavior.There is positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. Whether a reinforcement is positive or negative has nothing to do with whether the behavior desirable or not. You also are trying to use terms like punishment, which is not one of the terms from the instructions (and which you are not using correctly here). Stick to applying only the terms from the instructions that were assigned.
- When you do start talking about the case itself (the part of your post that begins with ‘Now to the story …’) you talk about the situation with the baby crying. However, you do not apply any of the concepts from the theory here. You mention positive and negative behavior, which as I pointed our earlier are not relevant here. Your focus here is on the child’s explanation of why he cried (he sees that on TV that the kid was allowed to eat the whole box of cookies). This is an example of a child seeing what someone else did and imitating that behavior, which is not something operant conditioning explains.
Unfortunately, the best thing to do at this point would be to delete everything you have and start over. Here are some additional hints to help you with that:
- For learning theories it is always important to specify who the learner is and what is being learned. If you think about this when you revise your analysis it will help. Each time you apply the theory you should specifically point out who the learner is and what is being learned.
- You ARE in the right area of the story when you focus on the child crying. But it is not his imitation of the child on TV that fits this theory. You should focus instead on the interaction with his mother (where he cries and she picks him up) in your revision. Here is a place where both positive and negative reinforcement can (and should) be applied. This is a place where clearly pointing out who the learner is and what is being learned will really help. In your revision you should focus on the interaction between the mother and child, but you need to get very specific. There are actually two learners in the interaction. Both mother and child are learning something through different types of reinforcement (positive and negative). Point out clearly:
- What is each of them learning?
- Which learner is experiencing positive reinforcement?
- Which learner is experiencing negative reinforcement?
- Finally, you still need to correctly explain how the extinction concept applies in the story. Extinction refers to NOT reinforcing a behavior in order to stop an unwanted behavior. Look for the place in the story where this is happening and explain why extinction would apply here.
If you address these issues, you should be able to successfully apply all the concepts from the theory listed in the instructions. I hope this helps.Good luck improving your analysis!
TITLE: FreudThere are many examples of Freudâ€™s theory through this case study. When the child is crying because his dad only let him have one cookie before dinner instead of the whole box like the boy on TV got when he cried, the child is acting with the
id is one of the three parts of personality that Freud proposed. It is the largest part of the brain and the source of needs and desires, which explains the childâ€™s desire for more cookies. The
ego is represented when the father is in the kitchen with his son and asks his son to go watch TV so he could figure out a complicated recipe. The
ego is the conscious and rational part of the brain. When the father realized he needed help and could not work on making dinner with his son there, he redirected his sonâ€™s attention to a TV show so he could call his mother. The
superego has most likely not developed yet for the child because he is only 2 Â½ and the superego develops between 3 and 6 years of age. I did not see many examples of the superego in this particular case study. There are also a few
defense mechanismsseen throughout this case study. For example,
displacement is seen when the mother gets home after a long day at a job that does not fulfill her and yells at the dog for greeting her. She is projecting the hardships of her life and the frustration she feels onto the dog, which is a less threatening target.
Projection is also used as a defense mechanism when the father shouts at the mom when she picks up their son. Although he does not say anything necessarily mean, he gives her a nasty look and tells her to put him down. This is an example of the father placing unacceptable impulses (like yelling) in himself onto someone else (the mother).
Rebecca,You have a good start here. I can see where you are trying to apply the theory. Some of what you have is correct but most of your analysis is incorrect or incomplete. I suggest you review the concepts in the text, overheads, theoretical foundations presentation and chapter FAQs and then revise your analysis. Here are some tips to help you:
- You ARE on the right track when you talk about the id being in control when the child is crying for more cookies. However, this needs to be better explained. This has nothing to do with the id taking up ore of the brain. In fact, this is not something Freud went into and the parts of personality are not actual physical structures of the brain. In your revision make sure you point out which part of the 3 components of personality seem to be controlling the child’s actions when he is crying for more cookies (you’ve already got a start on this by mentioning the id). What you need to add here is an explanation of why might this make sense given the childâ€™s age and the development of the other two parts of personality (you mention part of this later when you talk about the development of the child’s superego).
- In your analysis you are often over-applying the theory to places it
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