Pick one of the questions below. 500 words APA format.
For this forum, you were asked to read a series of articles on operational code. Select one of the following for your initial post:
- What do you think about operational code as an approach used to study political leaders? When is such an approach best applied?
- What are its strengths and weaknesses of using an operational code? What situations are applicable for the strengths to be most effective?
- Do you believe that this approach is able to adequately assess the behavior of any/all political leaders? Why or Why not?
- Select a leader who you can speculate a bit about his or her operational code based on what you have seen of that leader in the news. Barack Obama, Vladimir Putin, Hillary Clinton, or Donald Trump, for example, each have considerable coverage for speculation. But you are free to select any leader you wish
- Any relevant point from the readings you wish to discuss.
Assignments:Complete all required forums.
George, Alexander L. 1979. “The Causal Nexus Between Cognitive Beliefs and Decision-Making Behavior: The “Operational Code” Belief System.” In Psychological Models in International Politics. By L. Falkowski ed. 95-123. Boulder, CO: Westview. (28 pages)
Post, Jerrold M. Ed. 2006. The Psychological Assessment of Political Leaders: With profiles of Saddam Hussein and Bill Clinton. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. Read Chapter 9 and pages 324-328; 387-391. (38 pages)
Renshon, Jonathan. 2008. “Stability and Change in Belief Systems: The Operational Code of George W. Bush.” The Journal of Conflict Resolution 52, no. 6 (December): 820-849. (29 pages)
Malici, Akan and Johnna Malici. 2005. “The Operational Codes of Fidel Castro and Kim Il Sung: The Last Cold Warriors?” Political Psychology 26, no. 3: 387-412. (25 pages)
Recommended Optional Readings:
George, Alexander L. 1967. “The ‘Operational Code’: A Neglected Approach to the Study of Political Leaders and Decision-Making.” RM-5427-PR. The RAND Corporation. Santa Monica, CA. (September): 1-53.
George, Alexander L. 1969. “The ‘Operational Code’: A Neglected Approach to the Study of Political Leaders and Decision-Making.” International Studies Quarterly 13, no. 2 (June): 190-222.
Dyson, Stephen Benedict. 2001. “Drawing Policy Implications from the ‘Operational Code’ of a ‘New’ Political Actor: Russian President Vladimir Putin.” Policy Sciences 34: 329-346.
Marfleet, B. Gregory. 2000. “The Operational Code of John F. Kennedy During the Cuban Missile Crisis: A Comparison of Public and Private Rhetoric.” Political Psychology 21, no. 3: 545-558.
O’Reilly, K.P. 2012. “Leaders’ Perceptions and Nuclear Proliferation: A Political Psychology Approach to Proliferation.” Political Psychology 33, no. 6: 767-789.
Renshon, Jonathan. 2009. “When Public Statements Reveal Private Beliefs: Assessing Operational Codes at a Distance.” Political Psychology 30, no. 4: 649-661.
Schafer, Mark and Stephen G. Walker. 2006. “Democratic Leaders and the Democratic Peace: The Operational Codes of Tony Blair and Bill Clinton.” International Studies Quarterly 50, no. 3: 561-583.
Walker, Stephen G. 1983. “The Motivational Foundations of Belief Systems: A Re-analysis of the Operational Code Construct.” International Studies Quarterly 27:
Walker, Stephen G. 1990. “The Evolution of Operational Code Analysis.” Political Psychology 11, no. 2:403-418.
Walker, Stephen G. and L. Falkowski. 1984. “The Operational Code of U.S. Presidents and Secretaries of State: Motivational Foundations and Behavioral Consequences.” Political Psychology 5, no. 2:237-266.
Walker, Stephen G, and Mark Schafer. 2007. “Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson as Cultural Icons of U.S. Foreign Policy.” Political Psychology 28, no. 6 (December): 747-776.
Walker, Stephen G. Mark Schafer, and Michael D. Young. 1998. “Systematic Procedures for Operational Code Analysis: Measuring and Modeling Jimmy Carter’s Operational Code.” International Studies Quarterly 42, no. 1 (March): 175-189.
Walker, Stephen G. Mark Schafer, and Michael D. Young. 2003. “Profiling the Operational Codes of Political Leaders.” In The Psychological Assessment of Political Leaders: With Profiles of Saddam Hussein and Bill Clinton by Jerrold M. Post ed. 215-245. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Walker, Stephen G. and Mark Schafer eds. 2006. Beliefs and Leadership in World Politics: Methods and Applications of Operational Code Analysis.