paraphrase the answer that corresponds with its question

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  • 1.Compare and contrast the features of the protocell membrane with a modern cell membrane.
    • The protocells were likely made of a single layer of fatty cells. Like modern cell membrane, the fatty acids have fatty acid chains, hydrophobic tails, and hydrophilic tails. Modern plasma membranes have two fatty acid chains attached to hydrophilic heads, while protocell membranes had a bilayer of fatty acids, with hydrophobic tails inward and hydrophobic heads outward; modern cells have semi permeable barriers organized similarly.
  • 2.Describe the age of a fossil that contains 25% of its original 14C.
    • Fifty percent of the original 14C is leftover after 5,730 years, and fifty percent of that would require an additional 5,730 years to reach 25% of the original 14C. This means that 11,460 years would be the age of the fossil.
  • 3.List the sequence of events in the Precambrian that led to the evolution of heterotrophic and photosynthetic protists.
    • The first cells that evolved allowed for bacteria and archaea to develop. From the archaea, the first eukaryotic cells began to evolve. Once eukaryotic cells evolved mitochondria following the engulfing of aerobic bacteria, heterotrophic protists evolved. Photosynthetic protests, on the other hand, developed once those eukaryotic cells engulfed photosynthetic bacteria and developed chloroplasts.
  • 4.List the major events in the history of life that occurred during each of the Earth’s eras.
    • Precambrian Time: earth formed, then the first prokaryotic cells developed as oxygen gas accumulated in the atmosphere, leading to the first eukaryotic cells, the diversification of protists, and evolution of soft-bodied invertebrates.
    • Paleozoic Era:
      • Cambrian: Marine agle begin to develop, while the first chordates evolve and invertebrate phylas are present
      • Ordovician: Nonvascular land plants begin to make their way onto the solid ground, while in the water the first jawless, then jawed fishes evolve.
      • Silurian: The first seedless vascular plants evolve and the jawed fishes of the water begin to evolve in distinct manners to populate the seas.
      • Devonian: The first seed plants will appear while seedless vascular plants diversify, while on land the first insects and amphibians evolve.
      • Carboniferous: Coal forming forests appear, while ferns, mosses, and horsetails evolve; the first reptiles evolve as amphibians diversify, and scholars note that the first “great radiation of insects” appears (326).
      • Permian: Gymnosperms evolve and become diverse, as do reptiles, while amphibian populations decline.
    • .Mesozoic Era:
      • Triassic: As the conifer and cycad forests dominate, the first mammals evolve, along with dinosaurs; The sea becomes dominated by corals and molluscs.
      • Jurassic: As flowering plants appear, dinosaurs flourish and birds evolve.
      • Cretaceous:As the flowering plants spread and conifers continue to flourish, modern insect groups and placental mammals evolve.
    • .Cenozoic Era:
      • Paleogene/Paleocene: As flowering plants diversify, primitive primates, herbivores, carnivores, and insectivores evolve.
      • Neogene:
        • Eocene: As subtropical forests thrive with heavy rainfall, modern orders of mammals flourish.
        • Oligocene: As modern families of flowering plants evolve, browsing mammals and monkeylike primates evolve.
      • Quaternary:
        • Micene: As grasslands spread and forests shrink, grazing mammals, apelike mammals, and insects thrive.
        • Pliocene: As the herbaceous angiosperms thrive, the first hominids evolve.
        • Pleistocene: While herbaceous plants begin to flourish and diversify, ice age mammals and modern humans evolve.
  • 5.Explain why continents drift, and summarize the geological evidence to support plate techtonics.
    • Continents drift because they are not fixed, and their positions as well as the positions of oceans alter over time; Pangea was divided into Gondwanaland and Laurasia, and plate tectonics indicates that earth’s crust is made of slablike plates floating on the mantle layer; as the continents are part of the plates, seafloor spreading will happen once molent mantle rises and the continents will then move an average few cm per year.
  • 6.Defend the theory of continental drift with evidence from the biogeographical distribution of organisms.
    • One piece of evidence of continental drift would be the presence of large, flightless birds on the southern continentes. As Pangea broke into Laurasia and Gondwanaland, the continents formed Gondwanaland split apart and the birds began to develop distinct characteristics due to the geographic speciation (allopatric). The rhea in South America, the ostrich in Africa, the kiwi in New Zealand, and the emu in Australia all offer biogeographical distributional proof of continental drift since they share a common ancestor but were separated by the moving of the plates.
  • 7.List the mass extinction events that have occurred on Earth, and describe the hypotheses that explain the cause of each.
    • There are five mass extinction events on earth that occured at the end of the following periods:
      • Ordovician: Continental drift contributed to the extinction, which occured once Gondwana hit the SOuth Pole, and glaciers chilled tropical land, harming invertebrates and coral reefs that would not recover until Gondwana drifted north.
      • Devonian: 70% of marine invertebrates became extinct, and iridium in Devonian rocks in Australia point to a bolide event, perhaps from the movement of Gondwana back to the South Pole.
      • Permian: As ninety percent of species disappear, many presume that too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, since there were no polar ice caps to stimulate currents in the ocean, and organic matter was left at the ocean’s bottom to decay, while continental drift swept up the carbon from the seafloor and circulated to the surface, killing sea life and altering vegetation due to climate change. Only those animals that could burrow would ensure greater chances of survival.
      • Triassic: Environmental impacts of a meteorite colliding with Earth indicates that this could have been the cause of this extinction, which possibly advantaged the dinosaurs.
      • Cretaceous: An asteroid possibly hit the Yucatan Peninsula, leaving a layer of soot and resulting in the extinction of dinosaurs. The bolide, or large, crater forming projectile impacting earth, is equated to “an explosion of 10,000 times the entire nuclear arsenal of the world” (333).
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